Lyophilization (Freeze Drying)

 

For SEM experiments on wet samples, to ensure the water vapor do not contaminate the SEM tower, we need to get the water out of these samples. The safest and the gentlest way is lyophilization. Lyophilization gives the opportunity to avoid denaturation caused by heating the product, by maintaining it frozen throughout drying. This is the most obvious advantage over liquid-phase drying.  They have both shelf and flask-drying rooms, and they can dry cells, herbal, animal or human tissues, or even suspensions such as fibers, polymers, platelets, dusts, bacteria, viruses, liposomes, nanomaterial, particles, microspheres, etc. In addition to 70 and 80 centigrade refrigeration, for the shelf drying rooms, the flask-drying rooms could be properly custom-refrigerated with liquid nitrogen, or dry ice solutions.

 

Equally important is that in liquid-phase drying there is an undesirable shrinkage and concentration of active constituents that causes damage as well as a movement of these constituents to the surface of evaporation, where they form a dense, impermeable skin that inhibits drying, and later, rehydration. Such effects can be avoided by spray drying, but this requires brief exposure to temperatures around 100 C. Another advantage of lyophilization is that the wet material can be sterile so that particulate and bacterial contamination is reduced.

 

Thus, the principal advantages of lyophilization as a drying process are:

 Speed and completeness of rehydration

 Possibility of accurate, clean dosing into final product containers

 Porous, friable structure

 Speed and completeness of rehydration

 Porous, friable structure

 Possibility of accurate, clean dosing into final product containers

 Minimum damage and loss of activity in delicate heat-liable materials

 

Lyophilization can be used when the product meets one or more of the following criteria:

 Unstable

 Heat liable

 Minimum articulates required

 Quick and Complete rehydration needed

 High value

 

 

 

 

 

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